Pavement-watering as a technique of cooling dense urban areas and reducing the urban heat island effect has been studied since the 1990's. The method is currently considered as a potential tool for and climate change adaptation against increasing heat wave intensity and frequency. However, although water consumption necessary to implement this technique is an important aspect for decision makers, optimization of possible watering methods has only rarely been conducted. An analysis of pavement heat flux at a depth of 5 cm and solar irradiance measurements is proposed to attempt to optimize the watering period, cycle frequency and water consumption rate of a pavement-watering method applied in Paris over the summer of 2013. While fine-tuning of the frequency can be conducted on the basis of pavement heat flux observations, the watering rate requires a heat transfer analysis based on a relation established between pavement heat flux and solar irradiance during pavement insolation. From this, it was found that watering conducted during pavement insolation could be optimized to 30-min cycles and water consumption could be reduced by more than 80% while reducing the cooling effect by less than 13%. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Evaporative cooling
- Pavement heat flux
- Urban heat island
- Climate change adaptation
- Heat wave
[Hendel, Martin] Paris City Hall, Water & Sanitat Dept, F-75014 Paris, France; [Hendel, Martin; Colombert, Morgane; Diab, Youssef] Univ Paris Est, Lab Urba, EA 3482, EIVP, F-75019 Paris, France; [Hendel, Martin; Royon, Laurent] Univ Paris Diderot Univ, Sorbonne Paris Cite, MSC, UMR 7057, F-75013 Paris, France
Hendel, M (reprint author), Paris City Hall, Water & Sanitat Dept, F-75014 Paris, France.